My new satellite internet connection is from Exede, connecting to the ViaSat 1 bird in geosync orbit. A few technical details that I've observed follow.

antagonistic by design

The "Surfbeam 2 wifi modem" is a closed proprietary system. That is important because it's part of Exede's bandwidth management system. The Surfbeam tracks data use and sends it periodically to Exede. When a user has gone over their monthly priority data, Exede then throttles the bandwidth in various ways -- this throttling seems to be implemented, at least partially on the Surfbeam itself. (Perhaps by setting QoS flags?)

So, if a user could hack their Surfbeam, they could probably bypass the bandwidth caps, or at least some of them. Perhaps Exede would notice eventually. Of course, doing so would surely violate the Exede TOS. If you're renting the modem, like I am, hacking a device you don't own might also subject you to criminal penalties. Needless to say, I don't plan to hack the SurfBeam. But it's been hacked before.

So, this is a device that lives in people's homes and is antagonistic to them by design.

weird data throttling

The way the Surfbeam reports data use back to Exede periodically and gets throttling configured has some odd effects sometimes. For example, the Surfbeam can be in throttled state left-over from the previous billing month. When a new billing month begins, it can remain throttled for some time (up to multiple hours) until it sends an update to Exede and they un-throttle it. Data downloaded at that time might still be counted as priority data even though it was throttled. I've seen some good indications of that happening, but am not sure yet.

But, I've decided that the throttling doesn't matter for me. Why? ViaSat 1 has many spot beams, and the working-class beam I'm in (most of it is in eastern Kentucky) does not seem to get a lot of use between 7 am and 4:30 pm weekdays. Even when throttled, I often get 300 kb/s - 1 mb/s speeds during the day, which is not a lot worse than the ~2.5 mb/s peak when unthrottled. And that's the time when I want to use broadband -- when the sun is shining and I'm at home at work/play. I'm probably going to switch to a cheaper plan with less priority data, because the priority data is not buying me much. This is a big change from the old FAP which rendered the satellite no faster than dialup.

a whole network in there

Looking at the ports open on the Surfbeam, some very strange things turned up. First, there are not one, not two, but three separate IPs used by the device, and there are at least two and perhaps three distinct computers involved. There are a lot of flickering LEDs inside the box; a whole network in there. is the satellite controller. It's a Linux box, fingerprinted as kernel 3.10 or so (so full of security holes presumably), and it's running thttpd/2.25b (doesn't seem to have any known holes). It seems to have ssh and snmp, but with some port filtering that prevents access. (Note that the above exploit video confirms that snmp is running.) Some machine parsable data is exposed at and (See (SurfStat program) is the wifi router. It has a dns server, an icslap proxy, and nmap thinks it's Linux 3.x with Synology DiskStation Manager (probably the latter is a false positive?) It has its own separate web server for configuration, which is not thttpd. I'm fairly sure this is a separate processor from the other IP address. responds to ICMP, but has no open ports at all. However, it seems to have filtered ssh, telnet, msrpc, microsoft-ds, and port 8090 (probably http), so perhaps it's running all that stuff. This one is definitely a separate processor, located in the Satellite dish's TRIA (transmit receive integrated assembly). Verified by disconnecting the dish's coax cable and being unable to ping it.

lack of source code for GPLed software

Exede did not provide anything to me about the GPL licensed source code on the Surfbeam 2. I'm not sure if they're legally required to do so in my case, since they're renting it to me?

But, they do let you buy the device too, so it's interesting that nothing mentions the licenses of its software and where to get the source code. I'll try to buy it and ask for the source code eventually.

power use

The Surfbeam pulls as much power as two beefy laptops, but it is beaming signals thousands of miles into space, so I give it a bit of a pass. I want to find a way to power it from DC power, but have not had any success with that so far, so am wasting more power to run it on an inverter.

Its power supply is rated at 30v and 2.5 amps. Interestingly, I've seen a photo of another Surfbeam power supply that only pulls 1.5 amps. This and a different case with fewer (external) LEDs makes me think perhaps the installer stuck me with an old and less efficient version. Maybe they integrated some of those processors into a single board in a new version and perhaps made it waste less power as heat. Mine gets pretty warm.

I'm currently only able to run it approximately one hour per hour of sun collected by the house. Still on dialup the rest of the time. With the ability to get on broadband when dialup is being painful, being on dialup the rest of the time is perfectly ok. Of course it helps that with tools like git-annex, I'm very well tuned to popping up onto broadband briefly and making it count.